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This paper has reviewed the development in Augmented Reality research presented over the last ten years at the ISMAR, International Symposium on Mixed Reality, International Symposium on Augmented Reality and IWAR conferences, with a particular focus on Tracking, Interaction and ...

Trends in augmented reality tracking, interaction and display: A review of ten years of ISMAR

ISMAR, pp.193-202E, (2008)

Cited by: 1167|Views145
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Abstract

Although Augmented Reality technology was first developed over forty years ago, there has been little survey work giving an overview of recent research in the field. This paper reviews the ten-year development of the work presented at the ISMAR conference and its predecessors with a particular focus on tracking, interaction and display re...More

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Introduction
  • Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology which allows computer generated virtual imagery to exactly overlay physical objects in real time.
  • This paper reviews the decade of research presented since at the ISMAR (International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality) conferences, and the earlier IWAR, International Symposium on Mixed Reality (ISMR) and International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR) conferences.
  • These conferences are not the only venue for presenting AR research.
  • Broader surveys of the AR field as a whole can be found in the original 1997 work of Azuma et al [3] and the more recent 2001 Azuma et al [4] article
Highlights
  • Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology which allows computer generated virtual imagery to exactly overlay physical objects in real time
  • This paper reviews the decade of research presented since at the ISMAR (International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality) conferences, and the earlier IWAR, International Symposium on Mixed Reality (ISMR) and International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR) conferences
  • We show the number of papers published in ISMAR, ISMR, ISAR and IWAR in each of these categories over time, and the final total percentage break down of the papers
  • We considered all ISMAR/ISAR/ISMR/IWAR papers with an average citation rate of 5.0 or more per year
  • This paper has reviewed the development in AR research presented over the last ten years at the ISMAR, ISMR, ISAR and IWAR conferences, with a particular focus on Tracking, Interaction and Display technologies
  • To bring AR research from laboratories to industry and widespread use is still challenging, but both academia and industry believe that there is huge potential for AR technology in a wide range of areas
Methods
  • The main method used in this research is to review previously published conference papers and other related material from the conference proceedings of ISMAR’02 to ISMAR’07 and its forerunner events, IWAR’98, IWAR’99, ISMR ’99, ISMR ’01, ISAR’00, and ISAR ’01.
  • In addition to analyzing paper topics, the authors measured their relative impact by calculating the citation rate of the papers.
  • This was found by taking the total number of citations as reported on Google Scholar, and dividing by number of years since publication.
  • 15 were from the target conferences, showing that approximately 27% of the most cited AR papers from 1998 to 2007 came from the ISMAR conference and its predecessors.
  • Considering work from 2003, there are 20 papers which have an average of 10 citations per year or more, 35% of which were presented at the ISMAR conference
Results
  • OF REVIEW OF ISMAR PROCEEDINGS

    During the evolution of AR, a variety of related research topics have been developed and discussed extensively.
  • The authors grouped past AR research into the eleven categories shown in Table 1 below
  • These categories are based on the key topics described in the previous section.
  • The authors show the number of papers published in ISMAR, ISMR, ISAR and IWAR in each of these categories over time, and the final total percentage break down of the papers.
  • The first group contains the five main research areas of:
Conclusion
  • This paper has reviewed the development in AR research presented over the last ten years at the ISMAR, ISMR, ISAR and IWAR conferences, with a particular focus on Tracking, Interaction and Display technologies.
  • Other topics, such as rendering techniques, calibration and registration need to be considered to ensure that AR technology reaches a high level of maturity.
  • More researchers are paying attention to these areas, and it is becoming easier than ever before to be involved in AR research
Tables
  • Table1: Papers in the literature set
  • Table2: Proportion of Highly Cited Papers
Download tables as Excel
Funding
  • Vision-based tracking techniques can use image processing methods to calculate the camera pose relative to real world objects and so are analogous to closed loop systems which correct errors dynamically [6]. This is the most active area of tracking research in ISMAR with over 80% of past tracking papers describing computer vision methods
Study subjects and analysis
full and short papers: 276
The main method used in this research is to review previously published conference papers and other related material from the conference proceedings of ISMAR’02 to ISMAR’07 and its forerunner events, IWAR’98, IWAR’99, ISMR ’99, ISMR ’01, ISAR’00, and ISAR ’01. There are 276 full and short papers contained in these proceedings, providing an interesting snapshot of emerging research trends in AR/MR over the last ten years. We exclude posters which are typically shorter and not normally reviewed as rigorously.

Our analysis of the collected research was specifically guided by the following three questions. (1) Which areas have been explored in AR? (2) What are the developments and key problems in these areas? And (3) what are important future trends for AR research?

In addition to analyzing paper topics, we also measured their relative impact by calculating the citation rate of the papers

papers: 56
There are issues with the absolute accuracy of citation data from Google Scholar, such as reporting citations from non-scholarly sources, but it at least provides some indication about the relative importance of the papers. For example, searching for the term “Augmented Reality” on Google Scholar finds that there are 56 papers from 1998 to 2007 with an average citation rate of more than 10 citations per year. Of these, 15 were from the target conferences, showing that approximately 27% of the most cited AR papers from 1998 to 2007 came from the ISMAR conference and its predecessors

papers: 9
Of these, 15 were from the target conferences, showing that approximately 27% of the most cited AR papers from 1998 to 2007 came from the ISMAR conference and its predecessors. This percentage is increasing, demonstrating a growing influence of the ISMAR conference; considering just the papers published from 1998-2002, there are 9 papers from 36 or 25% of all the most cited AR papers. However, considering work from 2003, there are 20 papers which have an average of 10 citations per year or more, 35% of which were presented at the ISMAR conference

papers: 20
This percentage is increasing, demonstrating a growing influence of the ISMAR conference; considering just the papers published from 1998-2002, there are 9 papers from 36 or 25% of all the most cited AR papers. However, considering work from 2003, there are 20 papers which have an average of 10 citations per year or more, 35% of which were presented at the ISMAR conference.

full and short papers: 276
The main method used in this research is to review previously published conference papers and other related material from the conference proceedings of ISMAR’02 to ISMAR’07 and its forerunner events, IWAR’98, IWAR’99, ISMR ’99, ISMR ’01, ISAR’00, and ISAR ’01. There are 276 full and short papers contained in these proceedings, providing an interesting snapshot of emerging research trends in AR/MR over the last ten years. We exclude posters which are typically shorter and not normally reviewed as rigorously

papers: 20
This percentage is increasing, demonstrating a growing influence of the ISMAR conference; considering just the papers published from 1998-2002, there are 9 papers from 36 or 25% of all the most cited AR papers. However, considering work from 2003, there are 20 papers which have an average of 10 citations per year or more, 35% of which were presented at the ISMAR conference. AR RESEARCH TOPICS

vision tracking papers with the highest citation rate: 12
This has been the most active area of computer vision tracking research. Of the 12 vision tracking papers with the highest citation rate, 6 present natural feature tracking methods, and only 3 present maker based approaches. The most recent trend in computer vision tracking techniques presented at ISMAR is model-based tracking methods

users: 8
Reitmayr and Schmalstieg [70] used wearable computers to enable shared object viewing and game play in the same physical space. The Inivisible Train project allowed up to 8 users to play an AR train game together on PDAs [90] and Henrysson et al [33] demonstrated the first face-to- face collaborative AR application on mobile phones —AR Tennis. In AR Tennis two players pointed their camera phones at ARToolKit markers and saw a virtual tennis court model superimposed over the real world

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