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Our laboratory mainly addresses the immune response to HIV and why no successful vaccine to HIV has yet been developed. We work on antibodies to HIV particularly those that neutralize the infectivity of the virus. We work with phage libaries derived from single-chain antibodies of llamas among other antibodies. We are also interested in the cell tropism and virulence of HIV, and in human genetic factors that determine the risk of infection by HIV and the rate of progression to AIDS. We have also adapted techniques used to study HIV neutralizing antibodies to other emerging virus infections in particular SARS, H5N1 influenza and rabies. I take an interest in the history of the appearance of human infectious diseases and the impact that they have had in the past and may well in the future. Our research is funded by the MRC, the European Union and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.