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Dr. Grant has more than 26 years of experience with AIDS clinical care and research, including four years in leading roles in epidemiological studies in both San Francisco and Uganda. He is the protocol chair for the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx) clinical trial, a multinational study with 11 research sites in six countries on four continents and the first one to demonstrate the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in the prevention of HIV infection. On the same line of research Dr. Grant’s laboratory is also leading research to understand the biological and social implications of PrEP such as the immune response due to exposure to the HIV viral-antigen, low-level drug resistance, alterations in HIV testing and disclosure on social networks. Another area of interest of his laboratory includes HIV-1 superinfection, in which individuals already infected with HIV-1 might acquire additional strains of the virus. Understanding when superinfection does and does not occur could guide future HIV-vaccine development. Dr. Grant’s team has also investigated the consequences of how viruses evolve over time. Specifically, they are examining the molecular mechanisms behind drug-resistant HIV-1 in terms of replication, virulence and transmission. They are also studying the non-life-threatening simian immunodeficiency virus infection in apes. The long-term goal is to understand the viral and social characteristics that underlie patterns of epidemic spread of HIV-1 in human communities. Dr. Grant started the Gladstone/UCSF Laboratory of Clinical Virology in 1997 and the Gladstone Laboratory of Molecular Evolution in 2000. He has served as a member of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Antiviral Advisory Committee and is an author of more than 100 peer-reviewed publications. Dr. Grant earned a bachelor’s degree in biological sciences at Stanford University, an MPH in epidemiology at the University of California, Berkeley and an MD at UCSF, where he took his internship and residency training in medicine and did a fellowship in molecular medicine.